1. Communication-cultural differences:
    1. distance between the people
    2. touch
    3. age
    4. way of speaking
    5. gestures
    6. clothes

  2. Language-cultural differences: Cultural differences which cause problems in the classroom while learning languages together. In order to avoid the lack of understanding, confusion, uncomfortable situations and misunderstandings, teachers have to pay attention to and be aware of them. The types of these differences are the following:
    1. Differences in names:
      Problem: Students are unable to pronounce and memorise the names of the others.

    2. Meaning of words:
      Problem: „false friends”: when a word in the native language has another structure of meaning, than in Esperanto, e.g. tree/wood, leaf, family members, food

    3. Touching:
      Problem: Some people can be afraid of a touch which is not embarrassing for others (e. g. touching the nose during a game).

    4. Silence:
      Problem: e. g. Japanese and Finnish people think in complete silence. The teacher thinks, that they do not want to answer and continues with the next topic while they are still thinking.

    5. Differences in the seasons:
      Problem: Pay attention, that some may have 3, 2, or only 1 season in their home country. Or maybe they have 4, but the weather is the opposite of that in Europe (e.g. South America)

    6. Greetings:
      Problem: different greetings and customs

    7. Expressing kindness:
      Problem: Belief, that someone is being rude because of a reaction, which comes from his/her culture. Misunderstandings.

    8. Speaking:
      Problem: some students start to speak when others are still speaking or right after they finish, but others start to speak only in a complete silence.

    9. Taboo topics:
      Problem: they differ according to the culture. It is an important question whether to teach about them or not. Taboos may be: family, dogs, politics, social classes, historical events, police, poor people, racism, homosexuality.

    10. Eastern and Western „no”:
      Problem: (http://www.kava-pech.cz/procvicujsiesperanto/sites/citanka/16%20Jes%20kaj%20Ne%20%C4%89e%20neaj%20demandoj.html)

    11. Formal/Informal you:
      Problem: -

    12. Not understanding something:
      Problem: no one understands something, despite the other person trying hard

    13. Correcting:
      Problem: should students be corrected or not.

    14. Status:
      Problem: should we interrupt someone if he is old, a man (if you are a woman), or a boss?

    15. Sex/gender, sexuality:
      Problem: Especially in the Esperanto community try not to emphasise the differences between men and women (e. g. don’t say during a game: „Men, go to one side of the room, women, go to the other”).


Concluding all the above:

  • The teacher needs to be constantly aware of these differences and solve the confusions and problems
  • The teacher has to pay attention and solve unclear situations
  • The teacher should make everyone speak equally
  • The teacher has to be precise: clear instructions. E.g.: teaching what is shampoo, soap, etc.